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How to use Character & Type in Photoshop

About type

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    Type
    in Photoshop consists of mathematically defined shapes that describe the letters, numbers, and symbols of a typeface. Many typefaces are available in more than one format, the most common formats being Type 1 (also called PostScript fonts), TrueType, Open Type, New CID, and CID nonprotected (Japanese only).

    When you add type to an image, the characters are composed of pixels and have the same resolution as the image file--zooming in on characters shows jagged edges. However, Photoshop and ImageReady preserve the vector-based type outlines and use them when you scale or resize type, save a PDF or EPS file, or print the image to a PostScript printer. As a result, it's possible to produce type with crisp, resolution-independent edges.

 

Creating type

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    You can create horizontal or vertical type anywhere in an image. Depending on how you use the type tools, you can enter point type or paragraph type. Point type is useful for entering a single word or a line of characters; paragraph type is useful for entering and formatting the type as one or more paragraphs.

    Type entered as point type (top) and in a bounding box (bottom)
    Type entered as point type (top) and in a bounding box (bottom)

    When you create type, a new type layer is added to the Layers palette. In Photoshop, you can also create a selection border in the shape of the type.

    Note: In Photoshop, a type layer is not created for images in Multichannel, Bitmap, or Indexed Color mode, because these modes do not support layers. In these image modes, type appears on the background.


Working with type layers

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    Once you create a type layer, you can edit the type and apply layer commands to it. You can change the orientation of the type, apply anti-aliasing, convert between point type and paragraph type, create a work path from type, or convert type to shapes. You can move, restack, copy, and change the layer options of a type layer as you do for a normal layer. You can also make the following changes to a type layer and still edit the type:

    • Apply transformation commands from the Edit menu, except for Perspective and Distort.

    Note: To apply the Perspective or Distort commands, or to transform part of the type layer, you must first rasterize the type layer, turning the type shapes into a pixel image. Keep in mind that rasterized type no longer has vector outlines and is uneditable as type. For more information,

    • Use layer styles.
    • Use fill shortcuts. To fill with the foreground color, press Alt+Backspace (Windows) or Option+Delete (Mac OS); to fill with the background color, press Ctrl+Backspace (Windows) or Command+Delete (Mac OS).
    • Warp type to conform to a variety of shapes.
Formatting characters

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    Photoshop and ImageReady give you precise control over individual characters in type layers, including font, size, color, leading, kerning, tracking, baseline shift, and alignment. You can set type attributes before you enter characters or reset them to change the appearance of selected characters in a type layer.

Applying Open Type features to characters

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    When working with Open Type fonts, you can use old style figures, ordinals, swash, titling, connection forms, stylistic alternates, ornaments, ligatures, discretionary ligatures, and fractions if the font provides them. For Japanese Open Type fonts, you can use ligatures, discretionary ligatures, Fractions Japanese 78, Japanese Expert, Japanese Traditional, Proportional Metrics, Kana, and italics if the font provides them. For more information on Japanese Open Type fonts,

To apply Open Type features:

  1. Make sure you have an Open Type font chosen when using the Type tool.
  2. From the Character palette menu, choose one of the following:

    Old Style

    Are numerals shorter than regular numerals, with some old style numerals descending below the type baseline.

    Ordinals

    Automatically formats ordinal numbers (such as 1st and 2nd) with superscript characters. Characters such as the superscript in the Spanish words segunda and segundo (2a and 2o) are also typeset properly.

    Swash

    Substitutes swash glyphs (stylized letterforms with extended strokes).

    Titling

    Formats characters (usually all in capitals) designed for use in large-size settings, such as titles.

    Connection Forms

    Are alternate forms that provide better joining behavior.

    Stylistic Alternate

    Formats stylized characters that create a purely aesthetic effect.

    Ornaments

    Are devices that add a personal signature to the type family and can be used as title page decoration, paragraph markers, dividers for blocks of text, or as repeated bands and borders.

    Ligatures

    Are typographic replacements for certain pairs of characters, such as fi, fl, ff, ffi, and ffl.

    Type with Ligatures option unselected and selected
    Type with Ligatures option unselected and selected

    Discretionary Ligatures

    Are typographic replacement characters for letter pairs such as ct, st, and ft.

    Fractions

    Automatically formats fractions, numbers separated by a slash (such as 1/2) are converted to a fraction (such as 1/2).

 

Checking for spelling errors (Photoshop)

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    When you spell-check a document, Photoshop questions any words that aren't in its dictionary. If a questioned word is spelled correctly, you can confirm its spelling by adding the word to the dictionary. If a questioned word is misspelled, you can correct it.

To check and correct spelling:

  1. In the Character palette, choose a language from the pop-up menu at the bottom of the palette. This sets the dictionary for spell-checking.
  2. (Optional) Show or unlock type layers. The Check Spelling command does not check hidden or locked layers.
  3. Do one of the following:
    • Select a type layer.
    • To check specific text, select the text.
    • To check a word, place an insertion point in the word.
  4. Choose Edit > Check Spelling.
  5. As Photoshop finds unfamiliar words and other possible errors, do one of the following:
    • Click Ignore to continue checking spelling without changing text. Click Ignore All to ignore the questioned word for the rest of the spell-check.
    • To correct a misspelling, make sure the correctly spelled word is in the Change To text box and click Change. If the suggested word is not the word you want, you can select a different word in the Suggestions text box or enter the word in the Change To text box.
    • To correct a repeated misspelling in a document, make sure the correctly spelled word is in the Change To text box and click Change All.
    • Click Add to have Photoshop store the unrecognized word in the dictionary, so that subsequent occurrences are not flagged as misspellings.
    • If you selected a type layer and want to spell-check only that layer, deselect Check All Layers.
Finding and replacing text (Photoshop)

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    You can search for a single character, a word, or group of words. Once you find what you're looking for, you can change it to something else.

To find and replace a word:

  1. (Optional) Show or unlock type layers. The Find and Replace Text command does not check hidden or locked layers.
  2. Do one of the following:
    • Select the layer that contains the text you want to find and replace.
    • Select a nontype layer if you have more than one text layer and you want to search through all layers in the document.
  3. (Optional) If you selected a layer containing text, place an insertion point at the beginning of portion of text you want to search.
  4. Choose Edit > Find and Replace Text.
  5. In the Find What box, type or paste the text you want to find. To change the text, type the new text in the Change To text box.
  6. Select one or more of the following options to refine your search:

    Search All Layers

    Searches all layers in a document. This option is available when a non-type layer is selected in the Layers palette.

    Forward

    Searches forward from an insertion point in the text. Deselecting this option searches the entire text in a layer regardless of where an insertion point has been placed.

    Case Sensitive

    Searches for a word or words that exactly match the case of the text in the Find What text box. For example, with the Case Sensitive option selected, a search for "PrePress" will not find "Prepress" or "PREPRESS."

    Whole Word Only

    Disregards the search text if it is embedded within a larger word. For example, if you are searching for "any" as a whole word, "many" will be disregarded.

  7. Click Find Next to begin the search.
  8. Click the button that reflects what you want to do next.
    • Change replaces the found text with the revised text. To repeat the search, select Find Next.
    • Change All searches for and replaces all occurrences of the found text.
    • Change/Find replaces the found text with the revised text and then searches for the next occurrence.

 

Formatting paragraphs

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    A paragraph is any range of type with a carriage return at the end. You use the Paragraph palette to set options that apply to entire paragraphs, such as the alignment, indentation, and space between lines of type. For point type, each line is a separate paragraph. For paragraph type, each paragraph can have multiple lines, depending on the dimensions of the bounding box.

Controlling hyphenation and justification

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    The settings you choose for hyphenation and justification affect the horizontal spacing of lines and the aesthetic appeal of type on a page. Hyphenation options determine whether words can be hyphenated and, if they can, what breaks are allowable. Justification options determine word, letter, and glyph spacing.

    Note: Hyphenation and justification settings apply only to Roman characters; double-byte characters available in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean fonts are not affected by these settings.

Working with composition

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    The appearance of type on the page depends on a complex interaction of processes called composition. Using the word spacing, letter spacing, glyph spacing, and hyphenation options you've selected, Photoshop and ImageReady evaluate possible line breaks and choose the one that best supports the specified parameters.

Setting options for Asian type (Photoshop)

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    Photoshop provides several options for working with Chinese, Japanese, and Korean type. Characters in Asian fonts are often referred to as double-byte characters.

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